Carolyn Miller photo

In Cold Winter Night, Carolyn Miller uses a whole tone scale, which consists entirely of whole steps. This scale creates an “other-worldly” effect. Due to this twentieth-century type of scale, numerous potentially difficult accidentals show up. The lack of half steps contributes to the eeriness that one might experience on a desolate, chilly night. Challenging rhythms and a long scale involving hand crossing make this a fun piece for capable students.


Caroline Krause, Iowa Center for Research by Undergraduates Fellow


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